Electric motors are the backbone of modern automation. Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, and the resulting motion and torque drives a load.
Motors come in all shapes and sizes and are found in a diverse range of applications like industrial fans, blowers, pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, disk drives, conveyors, heavy machinery, robotics, and, more recently, motor vehicles.
For industrial applications, three primary motor types are most common: AC motors, DC motors, and servo motors. AC motors are driven by alternating current, and use electromagnetic induction to apply torque to the rotor. These motors can be single-phase, three-phase, and include several additional variations that serve different purposes. DC motors are powered by direct current, and use applied current and power to vary speed and torque. Servo motors are primarily used with position- or speed-control feedback systems needed for valves, machine tools, and other process systems.