A thermostat is an electronic component that senses the temperature of its environment. Thermostats are often the main control unit for heating and cooling systems, and are responsible for maintaining ambient temperature near a desired setpoint.
Thermostats control temperature by switching heating or cooling devices on or off to maintain the correct temperature. To control temperatures in an enclosure, a thermostat would be responsible for turning on or off small heaters and fans.
Thermostats provide consistent operating conditions within enclosures to produce greater reliability, reduce energy consumption, and improve equipment efficiency. Thermostats also assist in protecting electronic equipment from corrosion and other damage due to condensation.